【托福词汇资料】重点词汇语境记忆法——Orientation and Navigation

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【托福词汇资料】重点词汇语境记忆法——Orientation and Navigation

所谓语境记忆单词Remember by the context
,也就是将单词置于句子或课文中加以记忆的策略。而在应对托福词汇单词记忆的时候,由于其词汇量大,同时,我们除了学会词汇的拼写之外,还要更好的理解其的使用方法。那么,相信这样的语境记忆方法就是非常的适合了。那么,在以下内容中就为大家带来托福TPO阅读重点词汇语境记忆资料,希望能为大家的备考带来帮助。

【托福词汇资料】重点词汇语境记忆法——Orientation and Navigation图1

新托福之TPO阅读重点单词语境记忆之Orientation and Navigation

To South Americans, robins are birds that fly north every spring. To North
Americans, the robins simply vacation in the south each winter. Furthermore,
they fly to very specific places in South America and will often come back to
the same trees in North American yards the following spring. The question is not
why they would leave the cold of winter so much as how they find their way
around. The question perplexed people for years, until, in the 1950s, a German
scientist named Gustave Kramer provided some answers and, in the process, raised
new questions.

Kramer initiated important new kinds of research regarding how animals orient
and navigate. Orientation is simply facing in the right direction; navigation
involves finding ones way from point A to point B.

Early in his research, Kramer found that caged migratory birds became very
restless at about the time they would normally have begun migration in the wild.
Furthermore, he noticed that as they fluttered around in the cage, they often
launched themselves in the direction of their normal migratory route. He then
set up experiments with caged starlings and found that their orientation was, in
fact, in the proper migratory direction except when the sky was overcast, at
which times there was no clear direction to their restless movements. Kramer
surmised, therefore, that they were orienting according to the position of the
Sun. To test this idea, he blocked their view of the Sun and used mirrors to
change its apparent position. He found that under these circumstances, the birds
oriented with respect to the new “Sun.” They seemed to be using the Sun as a
compass to determine direction. At the time, this idea seemed preposterous. How
could a bird navigate by the Sun when some of us lose our way with road maps?
Obviously, more testing was in order.

So, in another set of experiments, Kramer put identical food boxes around the
cage, with food in only one of the boxes. The boxes were stationary, and the one
containing food was always at the same point of the compass. However, its
position with respect to the surroundings could be changed by revolving either
the inner cage containing the birds or the outer walls, which served as the
background. As long as the birds could see the Sun, no matter how their
surroundings were altered, they went directly to the correct food box. Whether
the box appeared in front of the right wall or the left wall, they showed no
signs of confusion. On overcast days, however, the birds were disoriented and
had trouble locating their food box.

In experimenting with artificial suns, Kramer made another interesting
discovery. If the artificial Sun remained stationary, the birds would shift
their direction with respect to it at a rate of about 15 degrees per hour, the
Sun’s rate of movement across the sky. Apparently, the birds were assuming that
the “Sun” they saw was moving at that rate. When the real Sun was visible,
however, the birds maintained a constant direction as it moved across the sky.
In other words, they were able to compensate for the Sun’s movement. This meant
that some sort of biological clock was operating-and a very precise clock at
that.

What about birds that migrate at night? Perhaps they navigate by the night
sky. To test the idea, caged night-migrating birds were placed on the floor of a
planetarium during their migratory period. A planetarium is essentially a
theater with a domelike ceiling onto which a night sky can be projected for any
night of the year. When the planetarium sky matched the sky outside, the birds
fluttered in the direction of their normal migration. But when the dome was
rotated, the birds changed their direction to match the artificial sky. The
results clearly indicated that the birds were orienting according to the
stars.

There is accumulating evidence indicating that birds navigate by using a wide
variety of environmental cues. Other areas under investigation include
magnetism, landmarks, coastlines, sonar, and even smells. The studies are
complicated by the fact that the data are sometimes contradictory and the
mechanisms apparently change from time to time. Furthermore, one sensory ability
may back up another.

【托福词汇资料】重点词汇语境记忆法——Orientation and Navigation图2

核心词汇

Navigation航行;航海

原文:Orientation and Navigation定位和导航

强化记忆:

The compass is an instrument of navigation. 罗盘是导航仪器。

Navigation is difficult on this river because of hidden rocks.
由于多暗礁,在这条河上航行很困难。

Orientation定向;方向

原文:He then set up experiments with caged starlings and found that their
orientation was, in fact, in the proper migratory direction except when the sky
was overcast, at which times there was no clear direction to their restless
movements. 他于是将星椋鸟关在笼子里做实验,然后发现了他们的方向。

强化记忆:

Keep the orientation of advanced culture firmly in hand. 牢牢把握先进文化的前进方向。

The winding trail caused us to lose our orientation.
迂回曲折的小道使我们迷失了方向。(winding蜿蜒的)

Robin知更鸟

原文:To South Americans, robins are birds that fly north every
spring.在南美,知更鸟每年春天都会飞往北方。

强化记忆:

A robin was perching on the fence. 一致知更鸟落在篱笆上。

A robin was pecking at crumbs on the ground. 一只知更鸟在地上啄食面包渣。

Perplex 使困惑;复杂

原文:The question perplexed people for years, until, in the 1950s, a German
scientist named Gustave Kramer provided some answers and, in the process, raised
new questions. 这个问题困扰了人们很久,直到1950年,一个叫做Gustave Kramer
的德国科学家回答了这个问题。但同时,又提出新的问题。

强化记忆:

I have no wish to perplex the issue. 我不想使问题复杂化。

The problem is hard enough to perplex even the teacher.
这个问题却是很难,以至于老师都迷惑不解。

Migratory 迁徙的

原文:Early in his research, Kramer found that caged migratory birds became very
restless at about the time they would normally have begun migration in the wild.
在这些研究的早期,Kramer发现被关在笼子里有迁徙习惯的鸟在他们往常在野外应该开始迁徙的时候变得好动。

强化记忆:

Many migratory birds visit this lake annually. 许多候鸟每年到这个湖上作短期逗留。

Besides migratory birds, what other animals have the habit of migrating?
除了候鸟,还有哪些动物有移居的习性?

Flutter 摆动;拍

原文:Furthermore, he noticed that as they fluttered around in the cage, they
often launched themselves in the direction of their normal migratory route.
而且,他注意到,当这些鸟在笼子里躁动不安时,他们通常将自己推向通常的迁徙路径的方向。

强化记忆:

They unfurled the flag and let it flutter in the wind. 他们将旗展开让其迎风招展。

Unknown birds flutter round the skirts of that forest. 叫不出名字的鸟儿在森林四周振翅飞翔。

Starling 椋鸟;八哥

原文:He then set up experiments with caged starlings and found that their
orientation was, in fact, in the proper migratory direction except when the sky
was overcast, at which times there was no clear direction to their restless
movements.
他于是将星椋鸟关在笼子里做实验,然后发现了他们的方向。事实上,他们有在适当的迁徙方向,除了天空布满云彩德时候,因为这个时候往往使得他们的骚动不安的活动没有了清楚地方向指向。

强化记忆:

One of the main starling roosts is on top of the Town Hall.
市政厅的房顶是椋鸟的一个主要栖息处。

The starling is now one of America’s commonest birds. 现在这种八哥已是美国最常见的鸟类。

Overcast 阴天的

原文:He then set up experiments with caged starlings and found that their
orientation was, in fact, in the proper migratory direction except when the sky
was overcast, at which times there was no clear direction to their restless
movements.
他于是将星椋鸟关在笼子里做实验,然后发现了他们的方向。事实上,他们有在适当的迁徙方向,除了天空布满云彩德时候,因为这个时候往往使得他们的骚动不安的活动没有了清楚地方向指向。

托福强化记忆:

It became overcast all of a sudden. 天一下阴了下来。

The sky was overcast. 天色灰蒙蒙的。

Surmise 推测;猜测

原文:Kramer surmised, therefore, that they were orienting according to the
position of the Sun. 因此,Kramer猜测道,他们时通过太阳的方位来确定方向的。

强化记忆:

We surmise that the delay is caused by some accident. 我们猜测这延迟是由于某种意外导致。

Compass 指南针

原文:They seemed to be using the Sun as a compass to determine direction.
似乎他们把太阳作为一个罗盘来决定他们的方向。

强化记忆:

The needle of a compass points to the north. 罗盘的指针指向北方。

The invention of the compass was referred to China. 指南针是中国发明的。

Compensate 补偿;抵消

原文:In other words, they were able to compensate for the Sun’s movement.
也就是说,他们可以适应太阳的运动。

强化记忆:

Nothing can compensate for the loss of one’s health. 一个人失去了健康是无法弥补的。

The firm must compensate you for your traveling costs. 这家公司必须偿付给你差旅费。

Precise 精确的;严格的

原文:This meant that some sort of biological clock was operating-and a very
precise clock at that. 这就意味着,有一种非常精准的生物钟在起着作用。

强化记忆:

Can you give a more precise definition of the word? 你能给这个词下个更确切的定义吗?

A lawyer needs a precise mind. 律师要有周密的头脑。

Planetarium 天文馆

原文:To test the idea, caged night-migrating birds were placed on the floor of
a planetarium during their migratory period.
为了验证这个猜想,这些在夜晚迁徙的鸟被关进笼子里,并在他们的迁徙期放置在一个天文馆里。

强化记忆:

The planetarium staff also prepared talks for radio broadcast.
天文馆的工作人员还要准备讲稿给电台广播。

On his days off, he takes them to the Museum of Natural History or the
Planetarium. 休假的日子里,他就带他们去自然历史博物馆或是天文馆。

Ceiling 天花板;上限

原文:A planetarium is essentially a theater with a domelike ceiling onto which
a night sky can be projected for any night of the year.
这个天文馆是一个具有穹顶状的天花板的剧场,并且这些天花板可以放映出一年中任何夜晚的样子。

强化记忆:

A lamp was suspended from the ceiling. 一盏吊灯悬在天花板上。

The ceiling of the cathedral glittered with gold. 大教堂的天花板金光闪闪。

Magnetism 磁性;磁场

原文:Other areas under investigation include magnetism, landmarks, coastlines,
sonar, and even smells. 包括磁场、里程碑、海岸性、声波甚至气味也同样被作为实验对象进行观察。

强化记忆:

She exudes sexual magnetism. 她洋溢着女性的魅力。

This book is about the earth’s magnetism. 这本书是关于地磁的。

Sonar 声纳;声波定位仪

原文:Other areas under investigation include magnetism, landmarks, coastlines,
sonar, and even smells. 包括磁场、里程碑、海岸性、声波甚至气味也同样被作为实验对象进行观察。

强化记忆:

I’m getting a strong response on the sonar. 我在声纳上测的强烈反应。

We picked up two submarines on sonar. 我们用声纳系统观察到两条潜水艇。

Contradictory 矛盾的;对立的

原文:The studies are complicated by the fact that the data are sometimes
contradictory and the mechanisms apparently change from time to time.
由于这些数据常常是相反的并且磁场经常随着时间的改变而改变的事实,使得这些研究非常的复杂。

强化记忆:

The argument is internally contradictory. 论据本身自相矛盾。

We are faced with two apparently contradictory statements.
我们面前的这两种说法显然是矛盾的。

Mechanism 原理;机制

原文:The studies are complicated by the fact that the data are sometimes
contradictory and the mechanisms apparently change from time to time.
由于这些数据常常是相反的并且磁场经常随着时间的改变而改变的事实,使得这些研究非常的复杂。

强化记忆:

The mechanism of the machine is very complicated. 这台机器的结构是非常复杂的。

The economic market is a self-correcting mechanism, that does not need
regulation by government.经济市场是一种自动调节的机制,不需要政府的调控。

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